Lo ultimo en noticias de Inmigracion en el Internet,
ONE STOP SERVICES
Un tema que suscita muchas dudas y controversia es precisamente la Reclamación de
Familiares que residen en Cuba o en cualquier otro país. Muchas personas que desean realizar los trámites pertinentes desconocen las particularidades de este proceso y ello
constituye una de las causas por las que en múltiples ocasiones son denegadas las peticiones.
En otros artículos hemos abordado esta temática pero en esta ocasión intentaremos resumir la información acerca del tema y de este modo aclarar muchas interrogantes.
El Gobierno de los Estados Unidos otorga anualmente alrededor de 226 000 visas de inmigrantes mediante las peticiones a familiares, siendo ésta la vía más común para
reunificar la familia bajo el estatus legal. Las peticiones familiares se clasifican en dos grandes categorías:
1-Familiares Inmediatos: Este grupo no dependen de la disponibilidad de visas, cuotas o porcentajes anuales para viajar a los Estados Unidos. Los visados a dichos familiares son
otorgados rápidamente por USCIS. Son considerados como Familiares Inmediatos:
◊ Esposos(as) y Viudos(as) de ciudadanos americanos.
◊ Hijos(as) menores de 21 años, solteros, de un ciudadano americano.
◊Padres de ciudadanos americanos, si el hijo/hija es mayor de 21 años.
◊ Hijos(as) adoptivos de ciudadanos americanos siempre y cuando los hijos(as) sean adoptados antes de que hayan cumplido 16 años.
◊ Hijastros(as) (menores de 21 años) o padrastros/madrastras de ciudadanos americanos siempre y cuando la relación hijastro(a)/padrastro haya sido establecida antes de que el/la hijastro(a) haya
cumplido 18 años.
2- Familiares Preferenciales: Estos se agrupan por prioridades. Deben tener una petición formulada y esperar a que el USCIS determine la
disponibilidad de visas de residentes, antes de que una les sea otorgada. La lista de espera generalmente tarda muchos años debido a que existe un número limitado de visas disponibles anualmente,
incluso la disponibilidad por países es reducida. Los Familiares Preferenciales se agrupan de acuerdo a las prioridades siguientes:
◊ 1ra Preferencia: Hijos(as) de ciudadanos americanos, solteros y mayores de 21 años. Actualmente existe una cuota anual de 23,400 visas y la lista de espera es de
más o menos 2 años.
◊ 2da Preferencia:
Segunda Preferencia (A): Esposos(as) e hijos(as) de residentes permanentes.
Segunda Preferencia (B): Hijos(as) mayores de 21 años de residentes permanentes, siempre y cuando sean solteros. La cuota anual para esta categoría es de 114,200 visas y la lista de espera es de 4
años para la Segunda Preferencia A y de 7 años para la Segunda Preferencia B.
◊ 3ra Preferencia: Hijos(as) de ciudadanos americanos, casados y mayores de 21 años. La cuota anual es de 23,400 visas y la lista de espera es de más o menos 3 años.
◊ 4ta Preferencia: Hermanos(as) de ciudadanos americanos, siempre y cuando el ciudadano sea mayor de 21 años. La cuota anual es de 65,000 visas y la lista de espera es de más o menos 10
Es importante señalar que los residentes permanentes solamente pueden peticionar a sus hijos solteros(de cualquier edad) y cónyuges. En tanto que los ciudadanos
estadounidenses pueden reclamar a sus cónyuges e hijos de este solteros y menores de 21 años, hijos, padres, hermanos y prometido(a)
In this series of four blog posts celebrating Public Service Recognition Week, we honor the dedication of USCIS employees who fulfill the USCIS mission of securing America’s promise as a
nation of immigrants.
By Ben Rubenstein
"Growing up, I never knew that life existed outside of the 48-mile radius of Eldorado, Texas," says Maribel (Mary) Gonzalez, an immigration services officer at the Texas Service Center in
In fact, the city of Eldorado itself, the county seat of Schleicher County in southwest Texas, fills just a tiny part of that radius. Her 1982 graduating class had been the largest in her high
school’s history – 48 students. Her mother worked at the Eldorado Woolen Mill, which was the oldest mill in the southwest U.S. before it shut down. Her grandmother canned her own vegetables and made
her own jam and candy.
Gonzalez with her daughter Marina and son Isaiah. Gonzalez says they “are the reason I still continue to do my best.”
In a population of barely 2,000, Gonzalez knew everyone, and everyone knew her and her parents and six siblings. “I always found that environment appealing,” she says. “I got a lot of benefits
growing up in a small town.”
She still goes home – Eldorado is a five-hour drive from Dallas – for the annual World Championship Goat Cook Off in nearby Brady, Texas. "A lot of people, when they don’t know how to describe
goat, will say it tastes like chicken. No, it doesn’t. It has its own distinct flavor."
Gonzalez (left) with friend Joe at the World Championship Goat Cook Off on Sept. 6, 2015. More than 200 teams seasoned and smoked the goat meat and competed for trophies, cash and bragging
rights. The event also featured art vendors, a street dance, and the Goat Gallop, a fun run and walk – and a healthy sense of humor, according to Gonzalez.
She tried to make sure her two children, a 21-year-old daughter named Marina and a 23-year-old son named Isaiah, connected with small-town life. They appreciate southwest Texas, she says, but
prefer Big D.
After high school, Gonzalez enrolled in a commercial college in nearby San Angelo, Texas. She recalls the admissions employee asking to see her Green Card. Gonzalez, born in Texas, had no idea
what that was, so she responded, "I don't have an American Express card, I’m paying with a check."
Her friend displayed her Green Card, but Gonzalez still had no idea what it meant.
Gonzalez later joined the Army. That's when she saw that life existed outside of the 48-mile radius of Eldorado. For starters, she got to see Dallas for the first time (and still remembers how
congested it looked by comparison.)
Gonzalez (right) with private first class Campbell while working with the Pershing missile system in Germany in 1987.
She scored well on the military aptitude test. The recruiter from San Angelo asked if she wanted to work on computers. "Yes," she said, figuring she’d learn skills that would be useful later in
civilian life. The recruiter, she adds, didn't mention that the computers were part of the Pershing missile system.
Gonzalez served as an electronic material specialist in Germany for almost six years. When the Cold War ended, the military needed fewer missile operators, so she became an accounting specialist
for the next four years in Fort Benning, Georgia.
After her military service, Gonzalez visited the Texas Workforce Commission to learn about employment opportunities. While in the waiting room, she overheard a woman who was also there looking for
work and struggling to communicate in English. The woman looked to her for help. Gonzalez – better at speaking Spanish than translating it – did her best.
Gonzalez in a cotton field in Eldorado in October 2013, teasing her boyfriend that his home state of Missouri may have corn but hers has cotton and football.
A contractor whose company worked for the Immigration and Naturalization Service (an agency that existed before the Department of Homeland Security was created) overheard the woman asking Gonzalez
to translate, and then asked if she would consider applying for his company. Gonzalez did and received an offer a few months later. A year after that, she became a federal employee.
Including her time in the military, Gonzalez recently reached 30 years of serving her country.
She’s held many positions at USCIS. Of course, she now knows what a Green Card is. She says she also understands why so many people want to come here and live the American dream.
From left, sisters Geral, Christy, Gonzalez and Georgie in May 2015 on the one-year anniversary of their mother’s death, at the small cemetery where their family members are buried. Gonzalez
says that’s where she wants her ashes spread. “Everything I knew and wanted was within 48 miles of Eldorado, and even though I came from a family of humble means, I had everything.”
"I am living that dream," she says. "I fell into this career by chance and it has been a blessing. When I helped that lady that day I had no idea what that gesture would mean in my life and the
opportunities it would lead to. I never saw that lady again. I’m hoping she got the job I helped her with."
Automatic Citizenship for Undocumented Immigrants’
In recent months, there has been increasing support for immigration reform for children of undocumented
immigrants. Recently, President Obama created a new policy which ensures that qualified young children of undocumented immigrants will be safe from deportation and can even apply for legal work authorization. However, some legislators oppose policies which would offer status for
undocumented immigrants and their children. Most recently, Republican Senate Candidate Christopher Shays has stated that he opposes automatic citizenship for children born to undocumented parents in
the US. Citizenship by birthright has been protected by the 14th Amendment since 1868, but Shays has supported eight bills which would take away automatic birthright citizenship for babies
born to undocumented immigrants.
In fact, Shays has talked about a so-called “blue card,” or a new immigration status which would give
undocumented immigrants the right to work and travel in the US and would obligate them to pay taxes and Social Security but would ensure that they never qualify for
Shays has received strong support from groups who have been fighting undocumented immigration. According to
Shays, the current automatic US citizenship granted to all persons born in the US creates a problem by giving undocumented immigrants an incentive to have children in the US, since once those
children are 18 they can sponsor their parents for citizenship. Other experts, however, point out that children need to be 21 to sponsor their parents for citizenship and if those parents are in the
country illegally, they would need to leave the US for at least ten years in order to get legal status and citizenship through their children.
According to immigration advocacy groups, birth tourism involves only a small percentage of people, most
of whom enter the US legally in order to give birth to children. Some groups believe that the number of undocumented immigrants would rise substantially if Shays and others succeeded in ensuring that
automatic birthright citizenship were repealed. Since all children born to undocumented immigrants would also be undocumented under the new laws, they and their children would continue to have no
status, over generations.
Some legislators in some states have proposed two classes of
birth certificates – one for legal citizens and residents and one for undocumented parents. Rep. Steve King in Iowa, for example, has proposed the Birthright Citizenship Act of 2011, which
would allow only some children born in the US to enjoy instant US citizenship. Children who were not born to US parents or people with legal status in the US would not qualify for citizenship by
birthright under the legislation.
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